4. the Akkadian Empire

Around 3000 BCE, the Sumerians had a significant cultural interchange with a group in northern Mesopotamia known as the Akkadians—named after the city-state of Akkad.
The Akkadian language is related to the modern languages of Hebrew and Arabic. These languages are known as Semitic languages.
The term Semitic comes from the biblical character Shem, a son of Noah, the purported progenitor of Abraham and, accordingly, the Jewish and Arab people.
Akkadian Cuneiform
Hebrew alphabets